T h e extract covers the period from the first doctorate in through the year T h e doctorates have been enumerated in chronological order. Each item mentions the full name of the doctor, the title of the thesis, a subject classification code, the date of the thesis defence, the name s of the promotor s and concludes with the predicate "cum laude", whenever conferred. Following the extract from the register, a complete list of the honorary doctorates is included.
A few articles about the Delft doctorate precede the extract. Mooij kindly gave permission to include some of his quatrains as captions for images of thesis defences. T h e doctores RJ. R Hart assisted in linguistic matters. Technical support was provided by X. Delft, Die ante diem natalem, January 6, J. Aarts III Picture front Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning Spruijt bv, Amsterdam Table of contents About this book and the C D - R O M ill Introduction by the Rector Magnificus VII Some images of thesis defences 1 Doctorates at Delft in the twentieth century 15 Fifty early doctorates Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning fifty recent ones; change and continuity 35 Extract from the register of doctorates 55 Subject classification 57 Extract from the register of honorary doctorates V Introduction Introduction 'A Century of Doctorates at Delft' gives an overview of the doctorates awarded between and the end of at the Techniscbe Hoogeschool Delft, later renamed Technische Hogeschool Delft and finally Delft University of Technology.
Doctorates constitute one of the most important products provided by an institution of higher education. A doctorate is, after all, the highest academic degree that such an institution can award. This has been the case ever since the first universities were founded some years ago. Nowadays, a doctorate is the result of a study of three to five years, during which the student receives tuition while at the same time carries out independently pioneering research.
This research leads to a doctoral thesis or proof design, which has to be defended in public. The doctoral examination committee, chaired by the Rector Magnificus and consisting of the thesis supervisor, professors and guest experts, assesses the manuscript or proof design. In case all the members of this committee have granted their permission to the candidate to defend the thesis or proof design in public, it means that in their opinion the manuscript or technical design is of adequate level and quality to confer the doctor's degree.
During the public graduation ceremony, the candidate's defense of his or her thesis or design will be
Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning. If the doctoral examination committee judges this defense also positively, the candidate will receive the doctor's degree diploma, which is signed by the Rector Magnificus and the thesis supervisor.
The preparations for an academic doctorate and the way the doctorate examination takes place have not always as described above. For that reason, it might be interesting to take a short look back at how the first universities came into existence, how degrees were conferred in the Middle Ages, and how various developments led to the award of the first doctorate at Delft. This last topic will be considered more in detail elsewhere in this volume.
The founding of the first universities, like the ones in Bologna, Paris, Oxford, Montpellier, Cambridge and Salamanca, at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century, was the Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning of a number of political, social-economic and cultural developments in medieval Europe. For a small part of the population the standard of living increased, and that part of the society became more and more interested in structuring knowledge in a systematic way, and so the need was felt to create centers of higher education.
In these institutions, the cultural elite, which had the capacity to fill socially important positions, was trained.
The objectives of the students were to acquire fundamental knowledge and to obtain practical skills. The universities were of great importance, not only to the students and teachers, but also to religious and worldly leaders.
They all hoped that the knowledge and skills disseminated at the universities would reinforce their position. For students and scholars, VII A Century of Doctorates at Delft a study at a university also implicated that they were protected largely against a number of threats from medieval society.
They were recognized as a separate class and were protected by both religious and worldly leaders. The diplomas granted by the universities gave Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning right to use the title of baccalaurius, magister or: In arts, the degree of magister was usually awarded and in law the degree of doctor was used: The baccalaurius degree was seen as the completion of the first phase of university education.
Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning diploma qualified the holder to become a 'junior-teacher' at the university in a certain discipline under the supervision of a magister or doctor. The degrees of magister and doctor'gave rheir holders the formal right to teach independently. Obtaining an Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning degree was a complex process. Before a candidate could enter the baccalaurius examination, he had to prove that all conditions for obtaining this degree were fulfilled.
Did he study long enough, had he accomplished all academic exercises, had he read all the specified documents, and had he actively taken part in all the disputations? If so, an oral examination followed, which - as a rule - consisted of a discourse in which the candidate had to give his view on a particular problem. A baccalaureus had the possibility to continue his study for a number of years in order to acquire his Ucentia. For the licentia, an examination was held in the presence of a jury that consisted of magistri and doctores and was chaired by the rector.
Usually, this examination consisted of a disputation, in which the candidate had to defend a certain view on a particular question, a 'point', which was drawn by lot the previous evening or morning. If the candidate won the disputation, he became a licentiatus, i. Paradoxically, the licentia was no license to Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning at the university.
To obtain the right to teach, the candidate had to take a public examination, which normally took place soon after receiving the licentia. This examination, which was the actual solemn inauguration into a university teaching position, led to the award of the degree of magister or doctor. It was a ceremonial examination - one that the candidate could not fail - and normally took place in a church.
After that examination, the candidate received the attributes belonging to a magister and doctor, namely the biretta, gloves and 'doctor's book'. After that, he performed his first act as a magister ox doctor, usually consisting of a disputation with students on a topic of his choice.
This disputation had
Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning demonstrate thar he was able to teach, and marked his entrance into the body of doctors.
It should be mentioned that many licentiati never obtained a teaching position the university of their doctorate. In that case, they did not appeal for the degree of magister or doctor. The reasons were that the procedure was very expensive and that - although a doctor's degtee was very prestigious - it gave no further rights outside the university. It was indispensable only for those who wanted to teach, because they had to be member of the collegium doctorum.
The question remains whether all those who did obtain the highest VIII Introduction academic degree, being magister or doctor, actually had a teaching position. Originally, this was a requirement formulated in the academic statute. According to that statute, every new magister or doctor had to serve Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning university as a necessarius with a teaching period of two years within his own faculty.
This rule ensured that the university teaching staff was renewed regularly. However, the necessarii viewed the rule as a restriction of their professional development, while the established staff viewed it as a threat to their position, because it was in their own interest to restrict the number of teaching positions. For these reasons, the rule was applied less and less, and from around it was dropped from the academic statute of most universities. Outside the university, an academic degree was not required for practicing a profession.
In many professions, a person with an degree did not necessarily have a higher status than a person without a degree. However, a university education was often required for many public service positions, as there were no specific education and training facilities for such positions. In the first centuries after the founding of the universities, a stay at a university was considered to be a valuable element of education, both for children of aristocracy and of the middle classes.
However, many of them did not complete their study and never graduated. Gradually, this situation changed, and from the 15th century on an Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning degree began to be a significant qualification for an appointment in ecclesiastical and worldly positions.
In this way, a university education, first without and later with a degree, became characteristic of the professional and social elite employed in religious profession, legal practice, civil service, medical care and education. In the Northern Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning, the first Hoogescbolen later called 'universities' were founded in the period to LeydenFranekerHarderwijkGroningen and Utrecht These institutions held the iuspromovendi.
In the same period also the first Athenaea, also called Illustere Scbokn, came into existence. These were institutions for semi-higher education; they did not hold the his promovendi. In the Northern Netherlands, scientific technical education started in Leyden, where Prince Maurits announced an education programme 'DuytscbeMathematique, designed by Simon Stevin, on January 9, The very next day, the mathematician Ludolf van Ceulen got the assignment to take care of the education in mathematics and surveying of students in engineering science1.
This school of engineering associated with Leyden University was basically an institution of higher professional training. The stipulation that the lessons had to be taught in Dutch and not in Latin, as was customary in academic education, stressed the difference between students of the new engineering education program and those of the traditional academic programmes.
Gradually, engineering education also developed at other universities. However, none of the universities realized a good integration in their academic education programmes, although one gets the impression that, for example, in Franeker and Groningen the relations between the engineering faculty and the traditional academic faculty were better than in Leyden. In Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning way, the engineering education for industry and ttade- in The Netherlands was accommodated in a separate institution.
This institution fell under the regime of secondary education and consequently it did not hold the iuspromovendi.
Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning, Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior, began planning a general revision of the legislation on education aroundhe already foresaw the founding of a Polytecbnische Schools a successor to the Koninklijke Akademie.
Many tried to persuade Thorbecke that a Polytecbnische School should be placed under the regime of higher education. Thorbecke was not really in favour of this idea, as can be learned from his reply to Parliament. He stated that education at the Polytecbnische School should not be regarded as academic education, but as advanced professional education in preparation for positions in trade and industry'.
The Parliament agreed and in the Koninklijke Akademie became the Polytecbnische School once again under the regime of secondary education. Nevertheless, many persons continued to press or the Polytechnische School to become part of the higher education system.
At the beginning ofan opportunity presented itself. Kuyper held the opinion thar rhe industrial developments in The Netherlands made it
Ramon verkoeijen heterosexual meaning to establish a technische hoogeschool. He intended to incorporate that new institution in his new act on higher education, and he wished to give the Polytechnische School at Delft the status of a technische hoogeschool. However, this required an adaptation of the education programme, the form of administration and the internal structure of the Polytechnische School.
Due to the fact that this hoogeschool was, an institute of higher education, it obtained the ius promovendi, which enabled the graduates of this institute to continue their study to obtain a degree of doctor of technical science. Zoo als men bet verstaan ml. Het is hooger ondenvijs vergeleken met de burgerscholen, maar bet is niet universitair onderwijs.