Jonathan Swift 30 November — 19 October was an Anglo-Irish  satiristessayist, political pamphleteer first for the Whigsthen for the Toriespoet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. He originally published all of his works under pseudonyms — such as Lemuel GulliverIsaac BickerstaffM. Drapier — or anonymously.
He was a master of two styles of satire, the Horatian and Juvenalian styles. His deadpanironic writing style, particularly in A Modest Proposalhas led to such satire being subsequently termed "Swiftian". Jonathan Swift was born on 30 November in DublinIreland. His maternal grandfather, James Ericke, was the vicar of Thornton, England.
In the vicar was convicted of Puritan practices. Some time thereafter, Ericke and his family, including his young daughter Abilgail, fled to Ireland.
Swift's father joined his older brother, "Biografia de johannes gutenberg resumida yahoo dating," in the practice of law in Ireland. At the age of one, child Jonathan was taken by his wet Biografia de johannes gutenberg resumida yahoo dating to her hometown of WhitehavenCumberland, England. He said that there he learned to read the Bible. His nurse returned him to his mother, still in Ireland, when he was three. His mother returned to England after his birth, leaving him in the care of his Uncle Godwin, a close friend and confidant of Sir John Temple whose son later employed Swift as his secretary.
Swift's family had several interesting literary connections. Swift's benefactor and uncle Godwin Swift — took primary responsibility for the young man, sending him with one of his cousins to Kilkenny College also attended by philosopher George Berkeley. He hadn't and so started at a lower form. Swift graduated inwhen he was The four-year course followed a curriculum largely set in the Middle Ages for the priesthood.
The lectures were dominated by Aristotelian logic and philosophy. The basic skill taught the students was debate and they were expected to be able to argue both sides of any argument or topic.
Swift was an above-average student but not exceptional, and received his B. Swift was studying for his master's degree when political troubles in Ireland surrounding the Glorious Revolution forced him to leave for England inwhere his mother helped him get a position as secretary and personal assistant of Sir William Temple at Moor Park, Farnham.
He had retired from public service to his country estate to tend his gardens and write his memoirs. Gaining his employer's confidence, Swift "was often trusted with matters of great importance".
Swift took up his residence at Moor Park where he met Esther Johnsonthen eight years old, the daughter of an impoverished widow who acted as companion to Temple's sister Lady Giffard. Swift was her tutor and mentor, giving her the nickname "Stella", and the two maintained a close but ambiguous relationship for the rest of Esther's life.
InSwift left Temple for Ireland because of his health but returned to Moor Park the following year. Then he left Moor Park, apparently despairing of gaining a better position through Temple's patronage, to become an ordained
Biografia de johannes gutenberg resumida yahoo dating in the Established Church of Ireland.
He was appointed to the prebend of Kilroot in the Diocese of Connor inwith his parish located at Kilrootnear Carrickfergus in County Antrim. Swift appears to have been miserable in his new position, being isolated in a small, remote community far from the centres of power and influence. While at Kilroot, however, he may well have become romantically involved with Jane Waring, whom he called "Varina", the sister of an old college friend.
She presumably refused, because Swift left his post and returned to England and Temple's service at Moor Park inand he remained there until Temple's death. Biografia de johannes gutenberg resumida yahoo dating he was employed in helping to prepare Temple's memoirs and correspondence for publication. During this time, Swift wrote The Battle of the Booksa satire responding to critics of Temple's Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learningthough Battle was not published until Temple died on 27 January Unfortunately, his work made enemies among some of Temple's family and friends, in particular Temple's formidable sister Lady Giffard, who objected to indiscretions included in the memoirs.
This failed so miserably that he accepted the lesser post of secretary and chaplain to the Earl of Berkeleyone of the Lords Justice of Ireland. However, when he reached Ireland, he found that the secretaryship had already been given to another. Swift ministered to a congregation of about 15 at Laracor, which was just over four and half miles 7. He had abundant leisure for cultivating his garden, making a canal after the Dutch fashion of Moor Park, planting willows, and rebuilding the vicarage.
As chaplain to Lord Berkeley, he spent much of his time in Dublin and travelled to London frequently over the next ten years. Inhe anonymously published the political pamphlet A Discourse on the Contests and Dissentions in Athens and Rome. Swift had residence in Trim, County Meathafter He wrote many of his works during this time period.
That spring he travelled to England and then returned to Ireland in October, accompanied by Esther Johnson—now 20—and his friend Rebecca Dingley, another member of William Temple's household. There is a great mystery and controversy over Swift's relationship with Esther Johnson, nicknamed "Stella".
Many, notably his close friend Thomas Sheridanbelieved that they were secretly married in ; others, like Swift's housekeeper Mrs Brent and Rebecca Dingley who lived with Stella all through her years in Ireland dismissed the story as absurd.
Although the tone of the letter was courteous, Swift privately expressed his disgust for Tisdall as an "interloper", and they were estranged for many years. During his visits to England in these years, Swift published A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books and began to gain a reputation as a writer. Swift became increasingly active politically in these years. He found the opposition Tory leadership more sympathetic to his cause, and, when they came to power inhe was recruited to support their cause as editor of The Examiner.
InSwift published the political pamphlet The Conduct of the Alliesattacking the Whig government for its inability to end the prolonged war with France.
The "Biografia de johannes gutenberg resumida yahoo dating" Tory government conducted secret and illegal negotiations with France, resulting in the Treaty of Utrecht ending the War of the Spanish Succession. Swift was part of the inner circle of the Tory government,  and often acted as mediator between Henry St John Viscount Bolingbrokethe secretary of state for foreign affairs —15
Biografia de johannes gutenberg resumida yahoo dating, and Robert Harley Earl of Oxfordlord treasurer and prime minister — Swift recorded his experiences and thoughts during this difficult time in a long series of letters to Esther Johnson, collected and published after his death as A Journal to Stella.
The animosity between the two Tory leaders eventually led to the dismissal of Harley in With the death of Queen Biografia de johannes gutenberg resumida yahoo dating and accession of George I that year, the Whigs returned to power, and the Tory leaders were tried for treason for conducting secret negotiations with France.
Swift has been described by scholars as "a Whig in politics and Tory in religion" and Swift related his own views in similar terms, stating that as "a lover of liberty, I found myself to be what they called a Whig in politics But, as to religion, I confessed myself to be an High-Churchman. Also during these years in London, Swift became acquainted with the Vanhomrigh family Dutch merchants who had settled in Ireland, then moved to London and became involved with one of the daughters, Esther.
Swift furnished Esther with the nickname " Vanessa " derived by adding "Essa", a pet form of Esther, to the "Van" of her surname, Vanhomrighand she features as one of the main characters in his poem Cadenus and Vanessa.
The poem and their correspondence suggest that Esther was infatuated with Swift, and that he may have reciprocated her affections, only to regret this and then try to break off the relationship. Their uneasy relationship continued for some years; then there appears to have been a confrontation, possibly involving Esther Johnson.